Objectual filosis

X.24.6 Thermal photons and thermal energy

Since the collision of only two atoms, as we have seen before, leads to the simultaneous emission of more photons, but which have different energy and directions127, in case of a set of atoms which make-up a NM and in which the collision parameters and the specific energy rates may have a continuous distribution, it is very clear that the energy distribution (and of the frequency rates as well) of the thermal photons shall also be continuous, but uneven.

First, we have to clear up one thing, the thermal photons are not different from other photons128 in terms of model, but they are differentiated only by the way how they are produced, and as a result of this generation method, by means of the frequency distribution type which they have it when they make-up a photonic medium - Plank’s distribution. Otherwise, one of the attributes which are specific to the photons class - that is the effective constant section - is also applicable for the thermal photons. In the previous section, we have seen that this effective section is at most equal (possibly, much more less) with the cross section of the volume where the radiator is placed (for the atomic thermal photons, the radiator is a couple {p,e}, where the proton is part of the nucleus and the electron belongs to the peripheral electronic medium). Since this effective section is so small, this means that a photon released from an atom may be propagated through the interstitial space, between the atoms of a NM, until the moment of its absorption and the re-emission of another photon by a peripheral electron which is on the way. Because there are reasons which make us to believe that the photons have a weak interaction129, this means that the amount of the thermal photons which can be simultaneously found in the interstitial space of an atomic or molecular medium make-up a G130 medium. Well, the energy exclusively contained (distributed) in this photonic medium is considered to be thermal energy, according to the objectual philosophy.

Definition X.24.6.1: The energy distributed on the G medium of the thermal photons which exists in the interstitial space of an atomic or molecular medium is named thermal energy (synonym - heat) contained in that particular medium.

Comment X.24.6.1: Definition X.24.6.1 means a clear dissociation as compared with the heat definition presented in the current physics textbooks, dissociation imposed by the objectual analysis of the two energy forms: baric131 and thermal. Whereas according to the classic approach (presented in textbooks), the thermal energy of a medium means the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules, but divided on the degrees of freedom, according to the objectual approach, the two forms of energy are clearly separated, since they are distributions of the same attribute - energy - but with totally different carrier MS. The kinetic energy of the atoms (baric) has as carriers the set of atoms’ kinetic fluxes and the pressure, as scalarized global attribute, while thermal energy has the interstitial thermal photons as carriers, and its global attribute is the temperature. It is clear that this approach on the thermal energy could not be conceived without a close connection with the isotomic character of the photonic EF, by establishing a maximum value for their effective section (which allows their propagation in the interstitial space between the atoms), by also considering that the interactions between the atomic EP must be synchronic, resulting therefore, the possibility of photons release by means of a simple collision between atoms, so on.

The definition X.24.6.1 is mainly consistent as regards the heat conveyance processes (thermal fluxes), real processes, which were experimentally divided in three categories132: radiation, conduction and convection. Let us make a short analysis of these heat conveyance processes, by taking into account the flux categories presented in chapter 5.

  1. Radiation is a heat conveyance process whose support - the flux elements - are acknowledged even by the current physics to be thermal photons, which means that there is no atom or molecules flux across the flux pathway. Well, my dear reader, we have seen that a flux means the transfer of an amount, but that amount which is about to be submitted must also have a material support (the objects which own the property). If the support of the thermal energy would be also the atoms (with their energy divided into degrees of freedom), how is it possible to convey the heat without the support atoms? This flagrant contradiction which was let aside and not analyzed by textbooks was also the starting point of redefining the thermal energy.

  2. Conduction is a heat conveyance process which is similar to the propagation, also characterized by the non-existence of coherent atoms or molecules fluxes on the direction of the thermal flux. In this case, we may argue that the translation/vibration motions of the elements from the atomic medium (symbolized by the so-called “phonons”) are transmissible, similarly to the acoustic waves, which is very true, but the perturbations of these motions are transmitted with the sound propagation speed through that medium, whereas the heat conveyance is made at much slower rates. If we are taking into account the above-mentioned issues, the reason for this low transmittance rate becomes obvious: the medium of the thermal photons is forced to diffuse through the interstitial space between atoms, which means that it is subject to many absorptions and re-emissions133, with numerous direction changes and unavoidable energy losses. Moreover, it is a well-known fact that the diffusion is much more slower than the propagation.

  3. Convection as an ultimate type of thermal flux is different from the other two types because there is a coherent atomic (molecular) flux which is guided in a certain direction, flux which carries the heat much more efficient and faster than the conduction. According to this paper, this flux type is nothing but the motion of the whole medium, together with the medium of the interstitial photons, and in this way, the coherent displacement component being added to the diffusion speed, the thermal photons medium having the same common (coherent) component on the flowing direction.

So far, we have seen that the thermal photons are able to reach to a specific zone of an atomic or molecular medium, either due to the local production (by means of the mechanical interactions deployed between NM elements placed in that zone), or through the thermal fluxes which already reached that area, fluxes released from another source (through the three above-mentioned flux types).

Definition X.24.6.2: The thermal energy which is associated to the medium of the thermal photons exclusively generated by means of direct (kinetic) interaction between the atoms or molecules of a medium is named thermal contribution of that particular medium.

The text underlined in the definition X.24.6.2 have the role to highlight the fact that the thermal photons which are found at a given moment into a specific medium may be generated either from the outside (in this case, they are produced in other part, the medium had a zero contribution to their generation), or from inside the medium by means of the repeated interactions deployed between the elements, and in such case, their energy is the thermal contribution of the medium. For example, the heating of a gas by means of compression, without an external heat input and without losses (adiabatic compression), occurs only as a result of the thermal contribution of that medium. Obviously, the process could not be possible without an external EF which produces the compression (piston motion), but this external flux is kinetic, non thermal (the heat transfer between the kinetic flux - that is the moving piston - and the compressed medium may be neglected because the piston may be considered in a thermal equilibrium with the medium before the compression).

There is a major difference between the thermal energy due to the thermal contribution of the medium and the one which is due to some external fluxes of thermal photons (external heat sources), difference which is not related to the carrier medium or to the generating process but it is focused on the transfer rate of this energy into the space occupied by that medium. If the external thermal flux is transmitted to the medium’s elements through diffusion (in case of thermal conduction), that is a very slow process, the thermal flux which is generated through thermal contribution (due to the pressure variations) is transmitted with a velocity having a size grade similar with the propagation rate of the pressure variation (sound speed) in that medium. Otherwise speaking, the temperature variations caused by the pressure variations are much more faster than the temperature variations caused by the thermal conduction.

Comment X.24.6.2: The concept of thermal contribution of a NM, introduced by the objectual philosophy is very useful for a coherent (logical) understanding of some processes deployed into the real world, processes which are explained by the current science community in a way which is not agreed by the present paper. It all starts from the net delimitation introduced by the objectual philosophy between the thermal energy, which has as carriers (support material objects) exclusively the thermal photons, and the baric energy, with carriers such as EP, NE, NC, AT, MO etc. which are MS with a rest mass (“heavy ones”). Both energy “forms” are distributed on some stochastic material fluxes which are inter-penetrated (they claim the same spatial domain) and which, due to this reason, undergo a close interaction process. Since there are two distinct media, there are also two different parameters which characterize the energy status of the two media: the temperature, specific to the photonic medium and the pressure, specific to the baric medium. For a certain type of NM, made-up from the same type of atoms, under equilibrium conditions, in which the EF re-circulated between the atomic and photonic medium are equal (and in counter direction) and there is no energy exchange deployed with the exterior, at a certain value of the pressure parameter will correspond a specific value of the temperature parameter. The existence of the interaction process between the photonic and baric media also creates an interdependence between temperature and pressure (such as, for instance, the ideal gas law for the atomic G media which shall be described later on). As a result of the interdependence between the temperature and the pressure of a medium, an adiabatic pressure variation leads to a variation with the same temperature trend, that is a variation which is much more faster than the temperature variations obtained as a result of a heat transfer (an external output of thermal photons). This temperature leap which reflects a leap of the thermal energy contained into the photonic medium is generated even by means of a thermal contribution of the baric medium, namely, the generation of thermal photons as a result of the mechanical excitation of the peripheral EP. The interdependence process between pressure and temperature is evident for both directions of the pressure variations. The instantaneous melting of the meteorites at the impact with the solid surface of a planet, auto-ignition of the fuel mixture through the rapid compression into the Diesel engines, the metals welding as a result of the shock wave produced by an explosion, are just few of the examples which prove the rapid temperature increase (without external thermal input) caused by a rapid pressure increase. A special case belonging to this category is represented by the huge temperature increase as a result of the cavitation (the implosion of a cavity which is temporarily made-up into the LA-type media), an increase which may reach to 104 K and generates the so-called sonoluminiscence or, in some cases even a temperature level of 106 K, at which even the nuclear dissociation processes are triggered1. If a coherent fluid flux (a stream) is deliberately generated into a thermally balanced G or L medium, the static pressure (thermal contribution generator) into the moving area shall be more reduced and consequently, the temperature in this area shall be reduced. We may find this process by ourselves if we blow strongly on one of our hands; we shall instantly feel a sensation of coldness in the area which is under the incidence of the air flux. For explaining this fact, your teachers who taught you when you were children gave you a funny explanation: the temperature drop is due to the vaporization of water which is on the surface of the skin. But, my dear reader, try to make the same experiment by covering your hand with a thin dry plastic bag and in this way, the water vaporization is out of the question. You will observe the same temperature drop into the area of the air flux, and this decrease is proportional with the flux intensity.

At the end of this section, let us summarize the hypotheses which have led to the model adopted by the objectual philosophy for the thermal energy:

  1. The photon model as EF with an invariant effective section, equal or less than the cross section of the volume in which the generating EP orbital is located.

  2. The generation of some photons by the atomic peripheral electrons by means of emission transitions (of returning to the fundamental state) which follow after some absorption transitions by means of mechanical excitation, which means that the absorption transition takes place as a result of the incidence on the peripheral electronic shell of some kinetic fluxes belonging to the proximity atoms (or to the conduction electrons), (T, R or T+R fluxes). Since the incidence parameters may have any value, the generated photons shall have a continuous but unevenly distributed energy (therefore, the frequency). These are thermal photons, with a specific frequency energy distribution - that is Plank’s distribution.

  3. As a result of the fact that the photon’s effective cross section (including the thermal photons one) is so small, it is likely that these photons to be propagated through the interstitial space between the atoms of a medium (even if this space is reduced, such as the case of S or L-type of media). Therefore, the space of existence and propagation of the thermal photons is the interstitial space of the atomic (or molecular) medium, the set of the thermal photons which can be found in this space at a given moment being the set of the support (carrier) elements of the thermal energy from that particular atomic medium.

127 Energy values and directions which correspond to all the electrons (and SO where they are located) disturbed from the fundamental state by the external kinetic flux.

128 Such as, for example, the monochromatic ones, produced in a laser.

129 Because of the lateral confinement, which is able to limit the flux on the normal direction across the pathway;

130 Alongside all the attributes specific to this kind of medium, such as the mean free path, forced maintenance, high compressibility, so forth.

131 The term of baric energy is being introduced for the kinetic energy T distributed on the set of the atoms or molecules of a medium, the global specific attribute of this energy being the pressure.

132 There is also another category of thermal process - that is the phase transition - which momentarily is let aside because it is much more complicated and irrelevant for the purpose of this section.

133 In the previous sections, we have seen that each storage phase of an absorbed photon has a finite duration which depends on the type of the excited orbital. If we are taking into account the fact that all these durations are added to the propagation process of the photonic flux deployed through the interstitial spaces of the atomic medium, it seems to be very clear why the diffusion of this flux is so slow.

1 R.P. Taleyarkhan et al. - Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation, Science 295 (2002)

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