X.24.9 Temperature

As we have seen in chapter 7, the balance of the fluxes generated by the interaction process (collision) of a MS couple shows two pairs of equal and opposites directions fluxes, the fluxes which are normal on RBS into the impact point and the tangential fluxes (whose direction is parallel with the tangent plane on RBS at the same impact point). The medium where this composition of fluxes takes place (the medium located into the transition volume of RBS) is the peripheral medium of the atoms, namely, of the peripheral electrons. It is clear that these fluxes, once they enter into the electronic medium, will be able to disturb the state of the electrons involved in this process. The mutual perturbation process of the peripheral electrons within the two systems, perturbation which is partly “mechanical”, as we have seen in the previous sections, and partly photonic, leads to the emission of photons which represents the interstitial photonic medium (the support of the thermal energy stored in that particular medium), and the emergent flux of these photons through RBS of that medium (internal traflux) represents the thermal equilibrium radiation of the equivalent black body. Therefore, there is no thermal radiation in the absence of the interactions (collisions) between the elements of a distributed material system. Accordingly, it is improper to talk about “the temperature of a single electron”, statement which is used more frequently regarding the particles released by the sun.

Comment X.24.9.1: It is true that the dimensions of the term kT from the ideal gas equation are the ones specific to an energy, but this fact does not mean that every time we talk about energy, we must associate it with the temperature; it is absurd to discuss about the temperature of an isolated EP and which moves across a non-disturbed rectilinear pathway (without collisions), which is obviously owner of a kinetic translation energy, but this energy does not belong to any of the thermal photons, therefore, according to the definitions presented so far, we cannot talk about thermal energy and about its specific attribute, that is the temperature. Although the thermal photons are the support of the thermal energy, its temperature is also out of question in case of an isolated thermal photon. A flux of thermal photons (the flux radiated by a warm body) has a Plank distribution which is in correspondence with a certain temperature of the flux source, but this temperature is an attribute of the medium of thermal photons contained into the source body and not of the photon flux which emerges from the body. Otherwise speaking, the frequency distribution of the photons from a radiating flux coming from a specific body is an information associated to that body, information concerning its thermal state.

According to a preliminary analysis, the temperature is a statistic amount, characteristic to a set of MS (such as AT, MO or EP) which are under interaction, and it is proportional with the global energy density of the photonic flux produced and stored into that set as a result of the collisions deployed between the system’s elements, or coming from the outside, but which is under equilibrium with that set. It is impossible during this phase of phrasing the temperature definition to establish exactly what is the specific weight (contribution) of the two components of the kinetic (baric) impact flux (the normal and tangential component), however, one may clearly state that:

  1. The normal component of the variation on RBS of the impact kinetic fluxes (T component collinear with a common normal line of the two inter-penetrated RBS at the moment of impact) is the main cause of the statistic attribute called pressure belonging to the support medium of these fluxes.

  2. The fluxes of the photons released as a result of these impacts make-up the medium of the interstitial thermal photons, that is a carrier medium of the thermal energy (energy made-up from the thermal contribution of the atomic or molecular media, as well as from the external heat intake).

  3. Under isolation conditions, without an external intake of fluxes, but also without flux losses towards outside, the two internal energy fluxes stored inside the medium - stochastic atomic (or molecular) EF and photonic stochastic EF - must be balanced, the mean intensity of the atomic kinetic flux (T+R) being equal and counter marked with the mean intensity of the opposition flux exerted by the thermal photons (also T+R).

  4. The pressure attribute, as it was defined in chapter 7, also belongs to the fluxes of thermal photons (and they also have a variation of the normal T component on the impact orbital), but the weight of this component is much reduced as compared to the kinetic component T of the atoms. In other words, there is also a baric contribution of the thermal photons medium, but this contribution is insignificant as compared to the baric contribution of the atomic impulses (under the common conditions found at the surface of Earth but not into the stars’ core).

  5. The main energetic component of the photons is the component R which is able to transmit rotation fluxes towards the driven object (electron or group of neighbor electrons), fluxes which may have common components across the RBS of an atom (namely, a partly R coherency). These common components may lead to the activation of some full rotations of the atom, rotations which may exceed the common vibration rates (becoming irreversible) and which can therefore cause the phase change of the atomic medium, from S into L (melting) or from L into G (vaporization, see the criteria of media classification from the chapter 6).

  6. The temperature, as an attribute specific to the thermal photons medium, attribute which is characteristic to a set of photons with the energy per element strictly depending on its frequency, cannot be separated even by the fact that the energy contained in this set is distributed on a frequency support. As we have seen in the chapter focused on objects, each abstract object of such kind has an internal reference system (either abstract or natural one), which represents that object within its external relations.

Well, this is the starting point for an objectual definition of temperature, taking into account the fact that the thermal energy is a distributed attribute, and that distribution (Plank distribution) has the thermal photons frequency as its support.

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